Type 2 diabetes with hypoinsulinemia
A large body of clinical and experimental evidence documents that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance precede the onset of T2DM. Nonetheless, a number of studies have shown that absolute insulin deficiency, with or without impaired tissue insulin sensitivity, can lead to the development of T2DM. This scenario is best exemplified by patients with maturity onset diabetes of youth (MODY) [69–71]. This familial subtype of T2DM is characterized by early age of onset, autosomal dominant inheritance with high penetrance, mild-to-moderate fasting hyperglycemia, and impaired insulin secretion.